Information Operations

Defined as actions taken to influence, effect, or defend information systems and decision-making, Information Operations (IO) are comprised of specific capabilities to include Electronic Warfare (EW), Operations Security (OPSEC), Psychological Operations (PSYOP), Military Deception, Computer Network Operations (CNO), Destruction, Public Affairs (PA), Civil-Military Operations (CMO), and Military Support to Public Diplomacy (MSPD). IIT has extensive experience supporting each of these capabilities.

IIT services include:

Doctrine Development and Support
Doctrine is a principle of body of principles presented by a specific field, system or organization for acceptance or belief. Within the Department of Defense (DoD), Joint doctrine is a set of fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more Military departments in coordinated action toward a common objective. It is authoritative; as such, joint doctrine will be followed except when, in the judgment of the commander, exceptional circumstances dictate otherwise. Information Operations (IO) are the employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception, and operations security, in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to affect or defend information and information systems, and to influence decision making. Military Information Operations (IO) doctrine takes the principles of IO and explains or converts them into guidelines for conducting IO.
From the beginning of IO – Information Warfare, Command and Control Warfare – to today’s IO, IIT has had a leading role in defining IO principles and concepts, as well as IO tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP). IIT has provided support to Joint staffs, Service staffs; component/MACOM level staffs, at the 1st IO Command (formerly the LIWA) Corps/Division level and at the team level in Kosovo, Bosnia, Iraq, and in Afghanistan. IIT subject matter experts have contributed extensively to Joint IO doctrine (JP3-13) and Army Field Manual (FM) 3-13: Information Operations: Doctrine, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures. IIT also establishes doctrine and TTP for the IO elements of operations security and military deception. In addition, IIT has developed and teaches IO in various formal Army and Joint forums including the Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth or at other locations depending on deploying unit requirements.

Intelligence Support
IIT has established partnerships with leading companies in the Information Operations field to support the Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense Intelligence Information Systems, Chief Information Officers and Program Managers across the intelligence community to include counter terrorism and Homeland Defense. IIT assists in the preparation of contingency plans, performs IO targeting and open-source and traditional intelligence tactics, techniques and procedures. In addition, IIT offers Community Infrastructure Management, Information Systems Support, Intelligence Support to Information Systems, and Technical Support Services.

IO Training
IO 101 Training
IO 101 is an introductory 40-hour web-based course designed to provide an overview of IO national, joint, and service Information Operations concepts, techniques, and doctrine. IO 101 serves as the baseline prerequisite course for students entering the IO career field in ARNG. IO 101 provides the critical foundation for the entire Information Operations Curriculum.
IO 210 Training
IO 210 is a 10-day resident based course designed to instruct IO soldiers on tactical IO planning, concepts, techniques, procedures, and assessment. It is a critical course for IO soldiers’ assigned to Division, enhanced Separate Brigade IO sections, IO Field Support Units, and Vulnerability Assessment Units. This course has also been modified to support specific training for units deploying.
IO Functional Area 30 Training
The FA 30 Course challenges students to learn, understand, apply, and analyze Army IO doctrine and TTP across the spectrum of conflict. The course includes an examination of information management (IM) and an in depth study of IO, including the elements of offensive and defensive IO.
These elements are studied from the perspective of the IO Officer, who has integration, coordination, and synchronization responsibilities at the Division and Corps staff levels. They include OPSEC, Deception, EW, PSYOP, Civil Affairs, Public Affairs, and Physical Destruction. Essential blocks of instruction on IO Targeting, IO Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), and developing IO doctrine (FM 3-13) are also included in the course presentations.
Special emphasis is placed on IO planning and planning products within the framework of the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP). Students develop their IO planning skills and demonstrate their knowledge of IO in a series of practical exercises (PE’s) and product development exercises. This training experience prepares the students for assignments at the tactical and operational echelons where they are expected to plan, coordinate, integrate, and synchronize IO activities.
Information Engagement (Basics Course)
This two (2) day introductory level course will provide participants with a basic ground work familiarization with the fundamental of information engagements. The basic information engagement definitions, desired effects, tools, and contributing capabilities will be presented. Participants will participate in sixteen (16) hours of seminar discussions, active questioning, and concrete practical exercises to develop the ground work for understanding information engagement. The seminar focus will highlight understanding the basics of integrating information engagement capabilities and tools to achieve measureable results.
• Approximately two (2) hours of reading and out of class study are required.
• Seminar topics will be drawn from Army Field Manuals FM 3-0, Operations, FM 3-13, Information Operations, and Joint Publication JP 3-13, Information Operations.
• Potential Participants: Military Staff Personnel (Joint and Army), Defense Contractors, media personnel, public relations staff, Federal and State Public Information Officers (PIO’s), other state and federal staff members involved in public policy and public communications.
Information Engagement (Practitioners Course)
This four (4) day practitioner level course will provide participants with solid grounding in the specific tools and capabilities that are used in creating information engagement effects. Methodologies, techniques, and tools will be presented to integrate and coordinate the use of information to achieve measurable results. The process of developing measures of effectiveness (MOE) and measures of performance (MOP) will be trained and exercised in this seminar / workshop. Extensive use of practical exercises and planning activities will be included.
• Approximately four (4) hours of reading and out of class study are required.
• Seminar topics will be drawn from Army Field Manuals FM 3-0, Operations, FM 3-13, Information Operations, and Joint Publication JP 3-13, Information Operations.
• Reading Lists and Professional self development tools will be provided.
• Potential Participants: Military Staff Personnel (Joint and Army), Defense Contractors, media personnel, public relations staff, Federal and State Public Information Officers (PIO’s), other state and federal staff members involved in public policy and public communications.

Master Planning
Major programs require policy, strategy, and direction. Master Plans provide overarching guidance for management and include segments on manpower, security, logistics and/or investment with associated milestones, the historical evolution of the program, and identify the major participants, key references, and relationships. IIT has a long history of success in Master Planning, especially within the Department of the Army. IIT has provided contributing authors and action officer support to the Army Intelligence Master Plan. In addition, IIT was the primary author of the Land Information Warfare Activity (LIWA) Program Management Plan (PMP). IIT was also the primary contractor involved in establishing the Army IO Campaign Plan and still provides secretariat support.

Mission Plans and Field Support Teams
IIT deploys multi-disciplined Field Support Teams (FSTs) worldwide with supported commands to assist with planning, synchronizing, deconflicting, integrating and guiding the execution of IO during contingencies and exercises. When deployed, an FST augments, and becomes an integral part of, the supported commander’s staff, filling gaps in the command’s IO capabilities, providing connectivity to IO-related databases for focused area studies and OPLAN/OPORD development and coordinating with IO staff elements from other Service components and higher commands.

Network Penetration Testing
Today’s hackers are smarter, faster, and harder to track than ever before. Penetration testing, sometimes referred to as Internet security auditing, network security assessment, or ethical hacking, involves using a trusted third party to perform penetration assignments to ensure that the organization maintains an effective barrier against a myriad of potential threats.It takes an expert to recognize what a skilled hacker can do. IIT’s penetration testing team has the experience and tools to yield high quality results. IIT’s team researches the latest security issues, technologies, vulnerabilities and exposures, and uses this information to develop practical penetration tests, using an extensive suite of open source testing tools. IIT’s testing approach is designed to provide clients with an accurate assessment of their security issues and needs and enables them to stay far ahead of individual hackers and organized cyber attack teams.
IIT’s penetration testing methodology is both unobtrusive and ongoing. Testing is performed at random times throughout each cycle: business hours, nights, weekends, holidays, and peak hours. Significant time has been dedicated to ensuring that penetration testing does not slow down a network. In many instances, clients’ firewalls, IDS’ and other software have been completely unaware of the penetration testing. This allows IIT to test for security gaps that are more likely to appear during heavy traffic periods, without reducing client network response time.IIT’s independence from affiliation with specific tools and technologies ensures that our clients receive unbiased and complete results.

Staff Augmentation
As a compliment to all of its services, IIT provides its clients with highly qualified, multi-disciplined staff support, to include operational deployment with military forces. IIT personnel have extensive problem solving and intelligence experience. Most with military/government intelligence and special operations backgrounds, which include real world Information Warfare and Information Operations experience.
Target Analysis
The process of detecting, selecting, and prioritizing targets in concert with IO underscores the importance of integrating and coordinating the supported command’s lethal and non-lethal attacks. IO and Targeting synchronization requires information to enable the destruction, denial, or degradation of vital Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) links and nodes at the right time and place; thus, detailed knowledge of adversary C4ISR resources is essential.IIT has extensive experience supporting the targeting process. IIT professionals provide assistance integrating IO into the high-priority target list (HPTL) and targeting objectives, identifying and nominating IO-related targets, and interpreting IO-related battle damage and/or combat assessments.
Threat and Vulnerability Analysis
With a unique focus on managing business and information related risk, IIT works with organizations to examine the threats they face and to analyze their unique vulnerabilities. The primary objectives of a vulnerability assessment (VA) are to provide information on the security and operational posture of a military unit or commercial enterprise to improve mission capability, and to protect proprietary technology/information by identifying Information Operations (IO) vulnerabilities in some or all of the following areas:
• Deficiencies in policy, programs, or personnel security resulting in Organizational vulnerabilities.
• Vulnerabilities resulting from Organizational structure and information flow.
• Vulnerability of computer networks, and the systems they support, to threats which could adversely impact the unit’s ability to accomplish critical mission functions.
• Vulnerability to enemy/adversary intelligence activities including SIGINT, IMINT and HUMINT. Vulnerabilities identified through counterintelligence activities.
• People, process or technology vulnerabilities identified via a SSE-CMM (ISO 21827) survey.
• Enforcement in areas of OPSEC, INFOSEC, or physical/personnel security.
After analyzing the current situation and risk from all perspectives (people, processes, technology), the IIT team will produce a detailed report, complete with recommendations to address all findings. Customers may then rely on IIT for all security process reengineering, infrastructure improvement, training and implementation needs.